Course information

Biomedical Imaging

Position of the course
The goal of this course is to make the students familiar with medical imaging and image processing techniques. An overview will be given of the working mechanisms of the most important medical imaging techniques, their advantages and disadadvantages, their applications and recent technical developments.

Contents
Introduction to images and image processing: sampling, filters convolution theorem X- rays radiography and principle of computed tomography and analytical reconstruction SPECT imaging: collimation, detection and image degrading effects PET imaging: principle, image degrading effects and iterative reconstruction Ultrasonic imaging MRI: basic principles of magnetic resonance and image formation Image processing and segmentation techniques

Course Specifications: Biomedical Imaging

Professor: Stefaan Vandenberghe

Advanced Image and Signal Processing

Position of the course
The goal of this course is to gain insight into different advanced methods for image and signal processing and to apply these techniques to biomedical data.

Contents
Image restoration: blind and other deconvolution methods
Advanced image reconstruction: analytical and iterative methods
Beeldregistratie en multimodale beeldvorming
Multimodal medical image/signal processing for biomedical applications
Feature extraction, Computer Aided Diagnosis and radiomics

Course Specifications: Advanced Image and Signal Processing

Professor: Stefaan Vandenberghe

Technology in Clinical Neuroscience

Position of the course
This course aims to give the students insight into the functioning of healthy brains and how these are affected in most common neurological disorder. Different techniques to measure the signals of the brain and to modulate the function of specific brain areas will be described.

Contents
Introduction to working mechanism of brain
Overview of neurological disorders
Functional and anatomical imaging with MRI
Elektro-encefalography (EEG) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
Techniques for neuromodulation (DBS, TMS, VNS, tDCS, cortical stimulation).

Course Specifications: Technology in Clinical Neuroscience

Professor: Stefaan Vandenberghe

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technology

Position of the course
The aim of this course is to provide the student with more knowledge and insight into several techniques and methodologies in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR/MRI). While the basic principles of MRI are discussed in the course “medical physics” and “biomedical signals and images”, this course gives an overview of more advanced MRI techniques.
In this course, the student becomes also acquainted with the arsenal of innovative techniques and experimental methods of MRI that are the basis of current research. The student also comes in contact with the versatile MRI research domain through ‘hands on’ laboratory and practical exercises.

Contents
Nuclear magnetism and nuclear magnetic resonance: Description on the basis of a classic electro-dynamic and quantum mechanical model
Principles of MR imaging: spatial encoding, spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation, T1, T2 and T2* contrast
Quantitative physical description of NMR mechanisms: the rotating reference frame, RF-pulses, signal acquisition
Basic imaging sequences: gradient echo (GE), spin echo (SE) and inversion recovery (IR)
Fast imaging techniques: echo planar imaging, RARE, GRASE and PRESTO
Image reconstruction in MRI: Fourier reconstruction, parallel acquisition
Diffusion-weighted MR imaging: DWI, DTI, and applications
Perfusion-weighted MR imaging: Effects of flow, angiography and applications
In vivo NMR spectroscopy: spectroscopy imaging (SVS and CSI) and applications Artifacts in MRI
Interventional MRI
Clinical applications of MRI
Pre-clinical applications of MRI

Course Specifications: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technology

Professor: Roel Van Holen

Radiologic Techniques

Position of the course
The student will get knowledge and insight into the physical principles in medical imaging. Special attention is given to quality assurance and performance measurements of the various imaging techniques and dose calibrators.
Thereby this course is an addition to the courses of biomedical signals and images and medical physics where the instrumentation and the effects of ionizing radiation are respectively discussed.
The purpose is to prepare the student for a responsible function in biomedical imaging. In this way the student can make well-considered judegements about the state of biomedical imaging equipment. The student can also critically evaluate new instrumentation trends.

Contents
Radiation detection
Radiation spectroscopy
Image quality: aspects of image quality
Nuclear medicine:
– Introduction
– Use and QC of dose calibratorsIntroduction • SPECT: principles and image quality
– PET: principles and image quality
X-ray imaging:
– Introduction
– Conventional and digital radiography
– Conventional and digital mammography
– Fluoroscopy
– CT
– Medical grade display systems
Imaging techniques: integration

Course Specifications: Radiologic Techniques

Professor: Roel Van Holen

Translational Neuroscience

Position of the course
In a report of the World Health Organization from 2006, neurological disorders contribute to 6.3% of the global burden of disease. This report estimates that the number of healthy life years lost because of neurological disorders will increase from 92 million in 2005 to 103 million in 2030, approximately a 12% increase mainly due to the aging population. Hence, there is still an important interest in neuroscience research to study the brain under normal and pathological conditions, even though, therapeutic successes have been few. Especially translational aims have been a remarkable
engine for driving research investment in the neurosciences. Translational
neuroscience is defined as:
1 Experimental non-human and non-clinical (basic science) studies conducted with the 1 specific intent to discover mechanisms, biomarkers, pathogenesis or treatments of
nervous system disorders.
2 Clinical studies that provide a foundation for developing, or that directly test, novel
therapeutic strategies for humans with nervous system disorders.
In other words, translational neuroscience will bring basic preclinical knowledge (from the bench) to clinical practice (to the bedside) to expand understanding of brain structure, function and disease, and translate this knowledge into clinical applications and novel therapies of nervous system disorders. Thus, translational neuroscience is the process of using all technological advances to bring novel therapies with measurable outcomes to patients with neurological diseases. In this course, emphasis will be on translational neuroimaging, where multiple imaging techniques are used to bridge the gap between preclinical research and clinic practice. These imaging
methods need to fulfil certain criteria such as being non-invasive (MRI), or at least minimal invasive (PET), and providing quantitative information to simplify the process of translating preclinical findings into the clinic.

Contents
The importance of small animal imaging
Multimodal neuroimaging
Setting up a small animal experiment
Animal models
Optogenetics
Chemogenetics
Examples of translational neuroscience experiments at our university
Group work where a brief review paper should be written

Course Specifications: Translational Neuroscience

Professor: Christian Vanhove

Contrast Agents and Biomarkers for Imaging and Therapy

Position of the course
Contrast agents, also called imaging probes, radio-pharmaceuticals, tracers or dyes, are used in conjunction with medical imaging devices such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), optical imaging, and nuclear imaging technologies like position emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Contrast agents are used to provide the necessary signals to these image devices (SPECT, PET), or to improve signals to these imaging devices (CT, MRI).
Until recently, methods for diagnostic imaging provide predominantly anatomical information and/or functional information at a macroscopic level. The current diagnostic imaging revolution (=molecular imaging) change into a more disease-oriented one. In contrast to classical diagnostic imaging, molecular imaging sets forth to probe molecular and/or cellular abnormalities that are the basis of disease rather than to image the end results of these molecular alterations.
The importance of molecular targets, and probes aimed at these specific targets, for diagnosis and therapy has been recognized and different imaging procedures are introduced to visualize and quantify these molecular processes.

Contents
The meaning of contrast
Overview of diagnostic imaging
• Anatomical and functional imaging
• Multi-modality imaging
• Small animal imaging
• Molecular imaging
Molecular medicine
Properties of molecular imaging systems
• Nuclear Imaging
• Optical Imaging
• Magnetic Resonance Imaging
• X-ray Imaging
Molecular agents for targeted imaging and therapy
• Nuclear Imaging
• Immuno Imaging
• Magnetic Resonance Imaging
• Optical imaging
In-vivo optical Imaging
• Bioluminescence imaging
• Fluorescence imaging
Reporter gene imaging
Examples & Applications

Course Specifications: Contrast Agents and Biomarkers for Imaging and Therapy

Professor: Christian Vanhove

Neural Interfaces, Neuromodulation and Minimally Invasive Neurotechnology

Position of the course
This course is aimed at the biomedical engineer that wants to dive deeper into the technological background of advanced diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in neurology and neurosurgery. The course covers the principles and pitfalls of acquisition of electrical signals in the central and peripheral nervous system, neuromodulation, brain-computer interfaces and assistive devices. Sections are also dedicated to the use of wearable technology in the follow-up of neurological diseases, and minimally invasive approaches in neurology and neurosurgery.

Contents
1 Design of neuro-electrical interfaces: circuit model, electrode materials, impedance 1 characteristics, field of view;
2 Acquisition of electrical signals from the central nervous system: signal generators, 1 electroencephalography, electrocorticography, single unit recording;
3 Peripheral nervous system & neuromuscular junction: nerve conduction studies, myography, artefact reduction;
4 Electrical neuromodulation: governing principles, deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve 1 stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation;
5 Brain-computer interfaces and neuroprosthetics: input signals, algorithm design, assistive devices, exoskeletons;
6 Wearables: sensors and integration, motion analysis for movement disorders, seizure detection, biofeedback for rehabilitation therapy;
7 Minimally invasive therapy: catheter-based procedures, stereotactic neurosurgery, neuronavigation.

Course Specifications: Neural Interfaces, Neuromodulation and Minimally Invasive Neurotechnology

Professor: Vincent Keereman

Biomedical Product Development

Position of the course
The aim of the course is to present students an overview of all steps required to solve a biomedical problem by designing a product prototype. Students will be taught how to apply a methodical way of designing a product, which should lead to enhanced product quality. By creating several possible solutions to a problem the chance to find the optimal solution is enlarged. All parts of the methodical design process will be practiced as group assignments (groups of 5 to 6 students). Since group work is very important part of product development, this will also be taught and practiced. In addition, lectures will be given on aspects of intellectual property rights (patenting), quality assessment and assurance, patient safety regulations, business development, green product developments. Lectures will also include presentations and testimonies from biomedical engineers in SME startup companies.

Contents
Designing biomedical products requires a specific methodical design process because of the diversity of the stakeholders, the different background of the project participants, the limitation of the amount of background information, and the complexity of the working environment. During this course tools are taught about:
• the methodical design process
• teamwork
• communication methods for a good cooperation between medical and technical
• experts
• application of selection processes
• project management
• intellectual property
• quality assurance, notified bodies
• basic financing
• business plan

Course Specifications: Biomedical Product Development

Professor: Ewout Vansteenkiste